[07-DEC-19] We offer a variety of implantable stimulators. Some may be used to power implantable light sources for optogenetic stimulation. Some may be used to stimulate the brain with electrical current. Some may be used for either purpose. Some stimulators include an amplifier and transmitter to monitor a biometric signal. For use with these implantable devices are a variety of light-emitting diodes, fiber-coupled light-emitting diodes, and bipolar electrodes.
Implantable Stimulator-Transponder (IST): A device that applies a voltage to its stimulus electrodes after receiving a radio-frequency command, and which also transmits acknowledgements, battery measurements, and synchronization signals. An example IST is the A3036A.
Implantable Light-Emitting Diode (ILED): A light-emitting diode designed to illuminate the surface of light-sensitive tissue. The LED is equipped with sockets that accept the pins at the end of stimulator leads. And example ILED is the blue A3036IL-A.
Fiber-Coupled Light-Emitting Diode (FC-ILED): An LED with a fiber-optic light guide glued to its surface, which carries roughly half its light a to a tapered glass tip, where the light is emitted in all directions. The light guide is six to ten millimeters long, and allows us to deliver optical stimulation to tissue several millimeters below the surface. An example FC-ILED is the A3036IL-A8. Another example is the A3024HF-B, which provides a guide cannula in addition to the light guide.
Subcutaneous Transmitter (SCT): A device that amplifiers and filters one or more biometric signals, samples them, and transmits the samples wirelessly to an external data receiver. An example SCT is the A3028B single-channel 0.3-160 Hz transmitter for mice.
Implantable Sensor with Lamp (ISL): A two-part device consisting of a body, which we implant in the abdomen of a host animal, and a head fixture, which we implant over the tissue we want to illuminate. Together, the sensor and the lamp provide continuous, wireless monitoring of a biometric signal, and generate optical stimuli in response to radio-frequency commands. An example ISL body is the A3030E, developed with funding from ION/UCL.
Mouse-Sized Implantable Sensor with Lamp (MS-ISL): An ISL with body and lamp small enough for use in mice. Our MS-ISL is under development with funding from the NIH, and should be available in late 2020.
Closed-Loop Control: When we have both a sensor and a stimulator implanted in an animal, we can generate stimuli in response to events in the sensor signal. This real-time response to sensor data with a stimulus is what we call closed-loop control. Watching for seizure onset in EEG, and responding to seizure onset with twenty seconds of electrical pulses applied to the brain, is an example of a closed-loop system.
External Closed-Loop Control: Closed-loop control where event detection and stimulus initiation are performed outside the animal. Suppose we have an Implantabl Stimulator-Transponder (IST) and a Subcutaneous Transmitter (SCT) implanted in the same animal. The SCT transmits EEG out of the animal to a data receiver. A computer downloads the EEG signal from the data receiver and looks for seizure onset. When it detects seizure onset, the computer instructs a command transmitter to send a stimulus command to the IST. When it receives the command, the IST generates a sequence of light pulses in the hope of stopping the seizure. In this example, event detection and stimulus initiation are external to the animal.
Internal Closed-Loop Control: Closed-loop control where event detection and stimulus initiation are performed inside the animal. Suppose we have an Implantabl Sensor with Lamp (ISL) implanted in an animal. The ISL digitizes EEG and uses its on-board processor to detect seizure onset and decide when to generate a sequence of light pulses. In this example, event detecton and stimulus initiation are internal to the animal.
Ex-Vivo Recharging: Recharging the battery of an implantable stimulator before implantation or after explantation. If after explantation, the stimulus electrodes must be recovered and cleaned, perhaps by means of acetone to dissolve dental cement followed by two clean acetone washes. We connect the stimulus electrodes to the clips of a battery charger, having made sure the stimulator is inactive. An example battery charger is the Tiny IST Charger (A3033A).
Implantable Stimulators: Description of our implantable stimulation system, including the use of on-board sensors and implementation of closed-loop control.
ISL Controller Tool: The ISL and IST control software, available in the LWDAQ Tool Menu. Initiates stimuli, turns on data transmission, checks battery voltages.
Subcutaneous Transmitters: Description of the telemetry system upon which the ISL is based.
News Group: News group for optogenetics and telemetry users.
Parts and Prices: A list of devices and their prices.
Command Transmitter (A3029): A 910-MHz transmitter for use with implantable stimulators.
Implantable Stimulator-Transponder (A3036): An implantable stimulator that acknowledges command reception.
Implantable Lamp (A3036IL): Implantable light-emitting diodes for use with implantable stimulators.
Implantable Sensor with Lamp (A3037): An implantable stimultor, transponder, and sensor that comes in a version small enough to fit in a mouse.
Battery Charger (A3033): Description of the simple battery chargers we offer for ex-vivo recharging.
Implantable Sensor with Lamp (A3030): An implantable lamp with biopotential monitor for rats.
MS-ISL Application: Application to the National Institute of Health (NIH) Small Business Initiative Research (SBIR) program for development of mouse-sized implantable sensor with lamp, internal closed-loop control, and fiber-coupled LEDs, including demonstration of the system's abilit to carry out optogenetic experiments. We were awarded this grant on 16-SEP-19. We will be collaborating with our co-applicants at Cornell University duriomg the year-long development schedule.
IST Proposal:: Development proposal for the Implantable Stimulator-Transponder, a mouse-sized, general-purpose, implantable stimulator with no EEG monitor. Development began on 06-AUG-19 in collaboration with UCL's Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology. Prototype ISTs completed 06-DEC-19. Further development of stimulators will be funded by our SBIR grant.
MS-ISL Technical Proposal: A proposal for development of a mouse-sized implantable sensor with lamp, without internal closed-loop control, and fiber-coupled LEDs small enough for implantation in mice, leading to a set of working prototypes. Now superceded by our SBIR grant. This proposal places the cost of performing animal studies upon the collaborating institutes, as well as incidental costs of purchasing command receivers, faraday enclosures, and subcutaneous transmitters.
Development Logbook: Account of the development of the original rat-sized ISL, presented in blog format.
Technical Proposal: Specification, Schedule, and Budget for development of the Implantable Sensor with Lamp in collaboration with ION, UCL.
Conceptual Design: Draft design to motivate development of the Implantable Sensor with Lamp.
Command Transmitter-Receiver (A3023): Prototype transmitter and micropower receiver.
Implantable Lamp (A3024): Prototype command receiver and lamp driver.
Lamp Controller (A2060L): A LWDAQ-based pulse generator for controlling optogenetic illumination.